Stimulating Immunity Against Targeted Diseases Through ‘Viable’ Pathogens
Vaccinations are vital in maintaining the health of people across various countries, and hence they hold a crucial part in strategies for disease prevention. A vaccine is a biological concoction that is administered to develop an acquired immunity in the patients. Vaccines are generally classified into live attenuated vaccines, inactivated vaccines, conjugate vaccines, recombinant vaccines, and others.
Live vaccines are developed by using live strains of the disease-causing virus or bacteria, which are weakened or attenuated by significant repeated culturing. The injection of a live vaccine into an individual and the subsequent replication of the virus or vaccine in the body elicits a prominent immune response in the injected individual, but do not cause infection in healthy individuals.
The live vaccines market is observing significant growth owing to the rising prevalence of infectious diseases, increasing awareness among people, and increasing government initiatives towards healthcare. According to a recent report, the Live Vaccines Market is expected to grow from its valuation of USD 16.14 billion in 2019 to garner a revenue of USD 26.59 billion, registering a CAGR of 6.6% by 2027.
The rising demand for improved healthcare infrastructure and increased awareness regarding the benefits of immunization are driving market growth. Across the globe, governments of numerous countries are striving to enable access to proper immunization to every sector of the society, regardless of socioeconomic status.
For instance, WHO launched a Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) in 2012 to boost the frequency and availability of routine immunization and to control the outbreak response. Gavi, The Vaccine Alliance, is a public and private global health initiative to ensure low-income countries receive proper immunization.
Additionally, WHO and UNICEF have drafted guidelines about the national immunization plans for all nations to ensure that countries have equitable access to vaccination facilities. The increasing involvement of government and NGOs is expected to create a lucrative growth opportunity for the market.
Technological advancements in the field of RDT (recombinant DNA technology) and further developments in the field of immunology are anticipated to drive the growth of the live vaccine market. The vital properties of live vaccines, such as low cost of production, long-lasting, oral administration, and significant effectiveness are key growth contributing factors of the market.
The North American region contributed to an enormous revenue generation due to the increased awareness about vaccination, the existence of key players of the market, and a robust regulatory framework of the government for health welfare. Asia Pacific market is expected to grow significantly, which can be attributed to the growing population in countries such as China and India and heterogeneous economic segments.
However, the Middle East & Africa is anticipated to grow at a high rate owing to a surge in demand for immunization as a part of the global health initiatives to eradicate several chronic diseases, especially in the African countries.
The Global Live Vaccines Market is spearheaded by pharmaceutical giants across the globe. Some of the key competitors include GlaxoSmithKline, AstraZeneca, Merck & Co., Pfizer Inc., and Sanofi, among others. The key companies of the market have expertise in developing vaccines to meet the unmet treatment needs for rare and complex diseases, along with an extensive product portfolio and the capability to take lucrative decisions. Moreover, their strategic alliances and business decisions are assisting them in gaining a robust footing in the market.
For instance, in 2019, a biotech company based in France and Norway, Valneva SE, announced a collaborative endeavor with the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) for the clinical development and manufacturing of VLA1553, a single-dose live attenuated vaccine for Chikungunya. The deal was valued at USD 23.4 million for the development and manufacturing of the vaccine. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic that emerged in late 2019 has prompted several pharmaceutical companies to develop vaccines to combat the infection caused by the novel coronavirus.
Indian Immunological, a Hyderabad-based vaccine manufacturer, in April 2020, announced a partnership with Australia’s Griffith University for the development of a potential live-attenuated vaccine candidate against the COVID-19 infection. The vaccine candidate was designed to offer prolonged immunity in a single dose. Previously the vaccine manufactured had allied with the university to produce a Zika virus vaccine, which is underway for pre-clinical toxicology testing.
The increasing frequency of infectious diseases is presumed to bolster the growth of the industry in the coming years. For instance, the COVID-19 pandemic has urged the pharmaceutical companies to step up the development and production of the vaccine to combat the spread of the novel infectious disease. However, even though COVID-19 can be considered as a driving factor, it has put brakes to the routine immunization programs conducted by global health agencies such as UNICEF, PAHO, WHO, and other agencies.
According to an announcement of UNICEF, over 99 countries terminated the immunization programs for MMR, Polio, and many others in May 2020. COVID-19 pandemic has caused a disruption in the vaccination rate in low and middle-income nations and has significantly lowered the adoption of vaccines across the globe. However, the market is still speculated to grow, owing to potential vaccine candidates in the pipeline and growing investments in the R&D sector.